Trani, Province of Barletta Andria Trani, Puglia, Italy
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The most flourshing age of Trani was the 11th century, when it became a bishop seat in lieu of Canosa, destroyed by the Saracens, and its port developed greatly thanks to its favourable starting position for the Crusades, becoming the most important on the Adriatic Sea. In the year 1000 Trani issued the Ordinamenta Maris, which are considered today the most ancient maritime codex of Middle Ages. At the time many prominent families from the other Italian Maritime Republics (Amalfi, Pisa and Venice) established themselves in Trani, and Trani maintained a consul in Venice and other consulates in many northern Europe centres, which shows its trading and political importance in the Middle Ages.
Emperor Frederick II built a massive castle in Trani. Under his rule, in the early 13th century, the city reached its highest point of richness and prosperity. By the 12th century, Trani housed the largest Jewish community of Southern Italy. Trani entered a crisis under the Anjou and Aragonese rule (14th-16th centuries), as its Jewish component was persecuted. Under the House of Bourbon Trani recovered a certain splendour, thanks to the generally improved condition of Southern Italy economy and the construction of several magnificent buildings. Trani was province capital until the Napoleonic age, when Joachim Murat deprived it of this status in favour of Bari. In 1799 the French troops made a massacre of Trani's population.