Mantova [Mantua], Province of Mantova, Lombardy, Italy
The Romans conquered it between the first and second Punic wars. After the fall of the Roman Empire it was invaded by Goths, Byzantines, Longobards and Franks, and then it became a possession of Canossa, whose last ruler was the famous countess Matilde of Canossa (d. 1115). According to the legend, she ordered the construction of the Rotonda di San Lorenzo.
In 1198 Alberto Pitentino optimised the course of the Mincio, creating what Mantuans call "the four lakes". In the Middle Ages, Mantua was ruled by several families which became extremely important in the history and culture of Italy, among them the Bonacolsi and the Corradi di Gonzaga (or, briefly, Gonzaga; 1328-1708).
The Gonzaga protected art and culture, and hosted several important artists like Leon Battista Alberti, Andrea Mantegna, Donatello, Luca Fancelli, and Nicolò Sebregondi.
Austria conquered Mantua after the fall of the Gonzaga and established the Royal Academy of Sciences, Letters and Arts and the Scientific Theatre, then the town passed under Napoleon's domain, and was later incorporated in a united Italy by the king of Sardinia.