Perugia, Province of Perugia, Umbria Region, Italy
In the middle of the 6th century it was captured by Totila after a long siege. In the Lombard period it is spoken of as one of the principal cities of Tuscia. In the 9th century, with the consent of Charles the Great and Louis the Pious, it passed under the popes; but for many centuries the city continued to maintain an independent life, warring against many of the neighbouring lands and cities--Foligno, Assisi, Spoleto, Todi, Montepulciano, and remaining loyal for the most part to the Guelphs (the Pope's party).
On various occasions the popes found asylum within its walls, and it was the meeting-place of the conclaves which elected Honorius II (1124), Honorius IV (1285), Celestine V (1294), and Clement V (1305).
In the 15th century power was concentrated in the Baglioni family, who defied all other authority. Gian Paolo Baglioni was lured to Rome in 1520 and beheaded by Leo X; and in 1534 Rodolfo, who had slain a papal legate, was defeated by Pier Luigi Farnese, and the city, captured and plundered by his soldiers, was deprived of its privileges. A citadel known as the Rocca Paolina, after the name of Pope Paul III, was begun six years later "ad coercendam Perusinorum audaciam."
In 1797 the city was conquered by French troops and it was finally united, along with the rest of Umbria, to the Kingdom of Italy in 1860.
What to see:
- Cathedral (Duomo) S. Lorenzo
- The Collegio del Cambio with Frescoes by Pietro Perugino
- The Palazzo dei Priori, the ancient town hall, encompasing the Collegio del Cambio, Collegio della Mercanzia, and Galleria Nazionale hosting works by Duccio, Piero della Francesca, Fra Angelico, Perugino
- The Basilica of San Domenico, begun in 1394
- The Fontana Maggiore, a medieval fountain designed by Fra Bevignate and sculpted by Nicolò and Giovanni Pisano
- The Ipogeo dei Volumni (Hypogeum of the Volumnus family), an Etruscan chamber tomb
- The National Museum of Umbrian Archaeology
- The Palazzo del Capitano del Popolo
- The Porta Augusta, a Roman gate with Etruscan elements
- The Rocca Paolina, a Renaissance fortress