Anagni, Province of Frosinone, Lazio Region, Italy
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History - Antiquity
The people who lived in those places were of Ernican ancestry, migrated from the Aniene valley and probably descendant from the Marsi (Marsians) (or from the Sabines), at least according to the ethnical term deriving from the Marsian herna, "stone", that is: "Those who live on the stony hills".
The importance of Anagni as a holy city and spiritual centre of the Hernici ( Er-Nee-Chee: Ernici in Italian) is outstanding. The city was the seat of temples and sanctuaries, where in the second century A.D., many linen codices containing sacred Etruscan writings were still well conserved, according to the testimony of Emperor Marcus Aurelius. Of these writings there is a sole survivor which is the Liber Linteus.
Probably, at the foot of the hill on which the city stands, there was the so-called Maritime Circle, where the Erniche ethnies of Alatri, Piglio, Veroli, and Ferentino, confederated under the aegis of Anagni, until the Romans attacked and defeated Anagni, and dissolved the Confederation in 306 BC.
In Imperial times, many emperors used to spend their summers in Anagni to escape the heat of Rome, most notably Marcus Aurelius, Septimius Severus, Commodus, and Caracalla. By the end of the Roman Empire a deep political and economic crisis caused the demographic collapse of Anagni's population. In the 10th century, an inner zone of Anagni was marked by the name Civitas Vetus (Old Town).
History - The early Middle Ages
During the tenth and the eleventh centuries the city strengthened its link with the papal court: in fact the popes began to consider it a safer and healthier spot compared to Rome. For this reason, Anagni remained one of the most favourite residences of the popes, in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.
The thirteenth century represented the real golden period of the city: in one hundred years, Anagni gave four popes to the Christianity, all members of the Conti family. Gregory IX (Ugolino Conti 1227-1241) on the 29th of September 1227 in Anagni's Cathedral excommunicated Emperor Frederik II who had abandoned the Crusade. In September 1230 Gregory IX received in Anagni Frederik of Svevia who had been able to conquer, by means of his great diplomatic ability, both Jerusalem and Nazareth.
History - the 14th century
The Pope was captured in his palace at Anagni in September 1303, by the French and Italian soldiers led by Guglielmo di Nogaret and Sciarra Colonna. A legend tells us that in such circumstances the Pope was slapped by Sciarra Colonna. The outrageous imprisonment of the Pope inspired Dante Alighieri in a famous passage of his Divine Comedy (Purgatory, XX, vv. 85-93), the new Pilate has imprisoned the Vicar of Christ. The people of Anagni rose against the invaders and released Boniface, but the old pontiff, already suffering, died in Rome about a month later.
The transfer of the papal court to Avignon marks for Anagni the beginning of a long period of decline which lasted through the entire XV century.
History - the Renaissance
History - Modern Times
Since the second post-war period the territory of Anagni has become a prominent industrial settlement in Central-Southern Italy.